Maximilian II (31 Julie 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member o the Austrick Hoose o Habsburg, wis Holy Roman Emperor frae 1564 till his daith.. Issue with Maria o Austrick. 15 Uetersen Schutzbrief des deutschen Kaisers 1576 01.jpg 1,393 × 723; 579 KB Although Protestant, he was not successful in uniting Protestants in the empire. Although the term "sacrum" (i.e. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - … Born in Vienna, Maximilian was a son of his predecessor, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547). Out of his nine sons and six daughters, two of his sons served as Holy Roman Emperors. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. His proposed army reform of 1570, by which the emperor would have controlled the army and would have had to grant his consent before foreign powers could recruit on German soil, was defeated by Germany’s Protestant princes, who suspected an attempt to prevent them from assisting coreligionists abroad and were less willing to grant greater powers to the emperor. Due to his religious tolerance, he was even threatened to be excluded from the line of succession. Birth of Anna of Austria. He allowed religious freedom to Lutheran nobles and knights in Austria but refused to invest Protestant administrators of bishoprics with their imperial fiefs, thus disappointing the hopes of Germany’s Protestant princes. Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. Updates? Initially, he was placed behind Emperor Charles V’s son, Philip II of Spain. Maximilian was married to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V’s daughter, Mary of Spain on September 13, 1548. This was after he assured of his loyalty towards the Catholic faith. Maximilian is also credited for creating a breathing-space between Roman Catholics and Protestants to co-exist peacefully. He became the first King of the Romans not to be crowned in Aachen. The first name honored his godfather and paternal uncle, Emperor Ferdinand I, and the second honored his maternal grandfather, Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria. Maximilian’s religious neutrality was largely a policy of political expediency in maintaining peace in the empire. Although Protestant, he was not successful in uniting Protestants in the empire. Paula Sutter Fichtner. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. Birth of Mary Rittenhausen. 2001. In this way, Paula Sutter Fichtner begins the introduction to this book, the first full biography in English of Maximilian. He was educated in Italy by humanist scholars. Maximilian II, (born July 31, 1527, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 12, 1576, Regensburg [Germany]), Holy Roman emperor from 1564, whose liberal religious policies permitted an interval of peace between Roman Catholics and Protestants in Germany after the first struggles of the Reformation. Henceforth, although he paid lip service to Roman Catholicism, he remained basically a humanist Christian who favoured compromise between the rival confessions. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! He proved to have a gift for linguistics, mastering (as well as his native German), French, Spanish, Italian, and Czech while a "… So Paula Sutter Fichtner begins the introduction to this book, the first full biography in English of Maximilian. The final Holy Roman Em… Oil on canvas. Abandoned in Mexico, Emperor Maximilian was captured by … He was educated in Spain alongside his cousin, the future Philip II, and from an early age practiced the profession of arms, … He was the eldest son born to the couple. Maximilian II, Roman emperor, was the eldest son of the emperor Ferdinand I by his wife Anne, daughter of Ladislaus, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and was born in Vienna on the 31st of July 1527. Their aim was to partition the Republic of Venice. Spouse/Ex-: Holy Roman Empress, Maria of Austria, siblings: Archduke of Austria, Charles II, Ferdinand II, children: Albert VII, Anna of Austria, Archduchess Margaret of Austria, Archduke Ernest of Austria, Archduke of Austria, Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria, Elisabeth of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, Maximilian III, Queen of France, Queen of Spain, Rudolf II, See the events in life of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor in Chronological Order. Maximilian II wanted to reform the Catholic Church and allow the practice of freedom of religion to the Lutheran nobles and nights. However, objection was raised as Ferdinand had already been designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne. He served as Holy Roman Emperor* (1564–1576), king of Bohemia (1549/1562–1576), and king of Hungary (1563–1576). This caused unrest among his subject… He was never crowned by the pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. Maximilian was the son of Ferdinand I, who succeeded as Holy Roman emperor after the abdication of Charles V. In 1548 Maximilian married his cousin Maria, daughter of Charles V. Maximilian's right of succession was recognised later and a compromise was achieved according to which while Philip was to succeed Ferdinand, while Maximilian was to govern Germany during Philip’s reign. In 1570, Maximilian proposed an army reform that was rejected by the German’s Protestant princes. Maximilian failed to achieve many of his political goals, but he had a lasting influence as a patron* of the arts. Anna o Austrick (2 November 1549 – 26 October 1580), mairit Philip II o Spain. Yet, although he preserved the right of his subjects to worship according to their beliefs, he succeeded in few of his political aims. A year later after being proclaimed as the King of Romans, in September 1563, he was crowned as the King of Hungary by the Archbishop of Esztergom, Nicolaus Olahus. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal. He was buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. He fought an unsuccessful campaign against the Turks which resulted in an arrangement in 1568 according to which he had to continue to pay tribute to the sultan. His refusal to invest Protestant administrators of bishoprics with their imperial fiefs disappointed the hopes of Germany’s Protestant princes. $35.00.) While on his deathbed, he refused to receive the last sacraments of the Church. Immediately after, he began to take part in imperial business. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (Pozsony in Hungarian; now … Valladolid, Castilla-Leon, Espana. His religious views and sentiments became a matter of concern causing sufficient scandal during the latter half of the 1550s. Maximilian’s sympathies for Lutheranism, formed in his youth, eventually caused sufficient scandal in Habsburg circles for his father to threaten him with exclusion from the succession in 1559. Also, they did not want to grant the emperor with greater powers. Already Bohemian king (from September 1562) and king of the Romans, or successor-designate to the empire (from November 1562), Maximilian became Hungarian king in 1563 and succeeded to the imperial throne in 1564. NOW 50% OFF! Pp. In 1575, by popular demand from Polish and Lithuanian magnates, Maximilian was chosen as a candidate for the position of the King of Poland against Stephan IV Bathory but his inability to make himself widely accepted led him to be ousted from Poland. He was baptized the following day as Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy (1564–1576) Born in Vienna on 31 July 1527. In Netherlands, Maximilian advised a compromise between the Catholics and Protestants but Spanish obstinacy left him with no choice. [Paula S Fichtner] -- By virtually all standards, including his own, Emperor Maximilian II (1527-1576) was a failure. Unlike his political failures, Maximilian’s religious policies were a far greater success. By Paula Sutter Fichtner (New Haven: Yale University Press. Maximilian was the son of Ferdinand I, who succeeded as Holy Roman emperor after the abdication of Charles V. In 1548 Maximilian married his cousin Maria, daughter of Charles V. He successfully preserved the freedom of the Protestant nobility to worship. 1551 Emperor Maximilian II and his family, c. 1563. In a dispute over the Habsburg succession order, he was at first placed behind Charles V’s son Philip (the future Philip II of Spain), but, by a 1553 agreement, he displaced Philip as heir to the empire and remained hostile to the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs. His experience in warfare came at around the age of 17 during the Schmalkaldic War against Francis I of France. Maximilian’s wife was the Spanish infanta Maria (b. Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. Maximilian II. xii, 344. So Paula Sutter Fichtner begins the introduction to this book, the first full biography in English of Maximilian. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Maximilian was born on 6 July 1832 in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, capital of the Austrian Empire. By virtually all standards, including his own, Emperor Maximilian II (1527 1576) was a failure. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Married Philip II of Spain, her uncle. Also, it was during his reign that Protestantism reached its all-time high in Austria and Bohemia. Maximilian of Austria was born in Vienna on July 6, 1832, the grandson of Francis II, Emperor of Austria. Much of his early life came under limelight due to the growing dispute over Habsburg’s succession order. Maximilian’s political career started in November 1562, when he was elected as the King of Romans by the electoral college of Frankfurt. Before that, he had to assure that he was loyal towards the Catholic faith. He also became the king of Bohemia. Between 1562 and 1563, he was crowned as the King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia. A humanist and patron of the arts, he largely failed to achieve his political goals, both at home and abroad. By virtually all standards, including his own, Emperor Maximilian II (1527–1576) was a failure. ‘The Last Knight’ showcases over 180 objects from the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, an early master of political propaganda—and whose armor fashionably showed his ruthlessness. Emperor Maximilian II. The son of Ferdinand of Austria, then King of Romans and next emperor (1556-1564) of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire, and his wife Anna Jagellonica, queen of Hungary and Bohemia, was born in Vienna on 1 August 1527. During his term of reign, he faced the ongoing Ottoman-Habsburg wars. His challenges were many, his achievements few. He was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. "holy") in connection with the mediaeval Roman Empire did not appear until 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa, Otto I is considered the first Holy Roman Emperor from the Kingdom of Germany, though Charlemagne of the Carolingian Dynasty was the first to receive papal coronation as Emperor of the Romans. Excluded from Italy by the hostile Venetians, he was unable to go to Rome for his coronation and had to content himself with the title of Roman emperor-elect that was bestowed on him with the consent of Pope Julius II on February 4, 1508. Maximilian, the eldest son of the future emperor Ferdinand I and the nephew of the emperor Charles V, received his education in Spain. He was the first to be the Elected Roman Emperor and not crowned, as the journey to Rome proved to be a risky affair. So despite being religiously tolerant from the inside, he showed loyalty to the Catholic faith on the outside. The marriage was basically aimed at strengthening ties with the Spanish branch of Habsburg and reaffirming Maximilian’s Catholic faith. Maximilian was the born on July 31, 1527, in Vienna, Austria, to Habsburg archduke, Ferdinand I, and Jagiellonian princess Anne of Bohemia and Hungary. Joseph II, Holy... Leopold II, Hol... Maximilian was a member of the Austrian house of Habsburg born to Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary. He succeeded his father as the ruler of Holy Roman Empire. Omissions? Get this from a library! Wiener Neustadt, Österreich, Deutschland (HRR) 1549 November 1, 1549. Outgoing and charismatic, Maximilian’s religious sympathies and adherence to humanism caused a lot of distress amongst nobilities who feared his conversion to Protestantism. Maximilian II. Birth of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. Maximilian II (1527-1576) was Holy Roman emperor from 1564 to 1576. Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope. Room 056. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The couple had sixteen children: Archduchess Anna of Austria (1 November 1549 – 26 October 1580). Six years later, under pressure from the newly reunited United States, France withdrew. 1550. Media in category "Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 51 files are in this category, out of 51 total. Unlike Maximilian, Mary was a strict Catholic and committed to Habsburg Spain. However, his effort in overcoming the denominational schism while approaching the Lutheran Imperial estates failed drastically. Emperor Maximilian II. His challenges were many, his achievements few. On 13 September 1548, Maximilian married his first cousin Mary of Spain, daughter of Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal.Despite Mary's commitment to Habsburg Spain and her strong Catholic manners, the marriage was a happy one. Furthermore, Maximilian’s religious ideologies put him at odds with Charles V’s son, Philip who was committed to defending Catholicism. Matthias. Maximilian breathed his last on October 12, 1576 in Regensburg. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. His efforts to gain the right of marriage for priests failed, largely because of the opposition of Spain. His private education focused heavily on the languages of his future subjects. The marriage was concluded in 1548 as the result of pressure from Spain and was intended to emphasize the political and genealogical union between the two lines. Maximilian I was the King of Romans who served as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death in 1519. In the Netherlands, Maximilian advised compromise between Catholics and Protestants but was again frustrated by Spanish intransigence.
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