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The government is asking Eiffel to design something spectacular for the 1889 Paris World Fair, but Eiffel simply wants to design the subway. [38], In 1913 Eiffel was awarded the Samuel P. Langley Medal for Aerodromics by the Smithsonian Institution. Renommé pour Constructions métalliques : ponts, Viaduc de Garabit (1884), Tour Eiffel (1887-1889). The task was a demanding one: the river was fast-flowing, up to 20 m (66 ft) deep, and had a bed formed of a deep layer of gravel which made the construction of piers on the river bed impossible, and so the bridge had to have a central span of 160 m (520 ft). Als Eiffels deutscher Stammvater gilt dem bisherigen genealogischen Wissensstand zufolge Leo Heinrich Bönickhausen, der Ende des 17. The design of the Eiffel Tower was originated by Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, who had discussed ideas for a centrepiece for the 1889 Exposition Universelle. In order to precisely align the legs so that the connecting girders could be put into place, a provision had been made to enable precise adjustments by placing hydraulic jacks in the footings for each of the girders making up the legs. Der älteste nachweisbare Vorfahre der Familie Bönickhausen in Frankreich ist Jean René Bönickhausen, der am 30. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was born in France, in the Côte-d'Or, the first child of Catherine-Mélanie (née Moneuse) and Alexandre Bonickhausen dit Eiffel. Alles über die interessantesten Brücken der Welt. Eiffel died on 27 December 1923, while listening to Beethoven's 5th symphony andante, in his mansion on Rue Rabelais in Paris, France. [6] He was a descendant of Jean-René Bönickhausen, who had emigrated from the German town of Marmagen and settled in Paris at the beginning of the 18th century. [8] Eiffel was not a studious child, and thought his classes at the Lycée Royal in Dijon boring and a waste of time, although in his last two years, influenced by his teachers for history and literature, he began to study seriously, and he gained his baccalauréats in humanities and science. The enhanced idea gained Eiffel's support for the project, and he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier and Sauvestre had taken out. [7] The family adopted the name Eiffel as a reference to the Eifel mountains in the region from which they had come. Suddenly, everything changes when Eiffel crosses paths with a mysterious woman from his past. The same year Eiffel started work on a system of standardised prefabricated bridges, an idea that was the result of a conversation with the governor of Cochin-China. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit it was sent back to the factory for alteration. Michel Gaudart de Soulages, Hubert Lamant: Archives nationales: BB/11/1473 dossier 3121x78. After some debate about the exact site for the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. In 1875, Eiffel et Cie were given two important contracts, one for a new terminus for the line from Vienna to Budapest and the other for a bridge over the river Douro in Portugal. Nach seinem Tod erhielt das Ingenieurbüro Gustave Eiffels den Auftrag. Some have already been destroyed, like in Vietnam. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 22. Danach arbeitete er in verschiedenen Konstruktionsbüros, bis er 1856 eine Anstellung als Brückenbauingenieur bei der westfranzösischen Compagnie des chemins de fer de l’Ouest fand, bei der er sich erstmals mit der Konstruktion von Eisenbahnbrücken befasste. Symbol of the French know-how Proprietary. Es handelte sich um den nach ihm benannten Pariser Eiffelturm, der seit Baubeginn am 26. Wegen umständlicher Zulassungsbedingungen wechselte er für ein Chemiestudium an die École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, die er 1855 mit einem Diplom abschloss. Gustave Eiffel Inauguration. mars 31, 1889 Interest. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel [.mw-parser-output .IPA a{text-decoration:none}alɛkˈsɑ̃dʁ gysˈtaːv ɛˈfɛl] (* 15. His first aerodynamic experiments, an investigation of the air resistance of surfaces, was carried out by dropping the surface to be investigated together with a measuring apparatus down a vertical cable stretched between the second level of the Eiffel Tower and the ground. About Gustave Eiffel Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, né Bönickhausen1 le 15 décembre 1832 à Dijon et mort le 27 décembre 1923 à Paris, est un ingénieur, un industriel français ayant notamment participé à la construction de la statue de la Liberté à New York et de la tour Eiffel à Paris. Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887. Eiffel wuchs in seinem Geburtsort Dijon auf. A budget for the Exposition was passed and on 1 May Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition which was being held for a centerpiece for the exposition, which effectively made the choice of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion: all entries had to include a study for a 300 m (980 ft) four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars. At the end of 1866 Eiffel managed to borrow enough money to set up his own workshops at 48 Rue Fouquet in Levallois-Perret. 1880 erhielt er den Zuschlag für den Bau des Viadukts von Garabit, das wegen seiner Höhe (122 Meter) und seiner gebogenen Form Aufsehen erregte und erst im Juli 1888 eröffnet werden konnte. The price quoted by Eiffel was FF.965,000, far below the nearest competitor and so he was given the job, although since his company was less experienced than his rivals the Portuguese authorities appointed a committee to report on Eiffel et Cie's suitability. Auszug aus dem Geburtsregister von Dijon, 713/1832, erstellt am 13. Eiffel's importance as an engineer was twofold. Am Rande der Urkunde befindet sich aber der Vermerk, dass per Richterspruch des erstinstanzlichen Gerichts von Dijon vom 15. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel [alɛkˈsɑ̃dʀ gysˈtaːv ɛˈfɛl] (* 15. Curious argument to counter those who do not want to see it built. Gustave Eiffel married Marguerite Gaudelet in 1862 at the age of 30, in Dijon. [20] To assist him in the work he took on several people who were to play important roles in the design and construction of the Eiffel Tower, including Maurice Koechlin, a young graduate of the Zurich Polytechnikum, who was engaged to undertake calculations and make drawings, and Émile Nouguier, who had previously worked for Eiffel on the construction of the Douro bridge. Zwischen 1881 und 1882 baute Eiffel die Brücke von Szeged in Ungarn. Each of these slabs supported a limestone block, each with an inclined top to bear the supporting shoe for the ironwork. Nachdem sich ein Eintritt in die Fabriken seines Onkels nicht verwirklicht hatte, war er für einige Monate in einer Sprengstoff-Fabrik in Châtillon-sur-Seine beschäftigt. [21], In 1881 Eiffel was contacted by Auguste Bartholdi who was in need of an engineer to help him to realise the Statue of Liberty. Auch in der Geburtsurkunde von Alexandre Gustave Eiffel ist „Bonickhausen dit Eiffel“ eingetragen. Actions to protect the bridge were taken as early as 2002 by the "Association of the Descendants of Gustave Eiffel",[42] joined from 2005 onwards by the Association "Sauvons la Passerelle Eiffel" (Save the Eiffel Bridge). Nationalité Français. An important part in his education was played by his uncle, Jean-Baptiste Mollerat, who had invented a process for distilling vinegar and had a large chemical works near Dijon, and one of his uncle's friends, the chemist Michel Perret. Die väterlichen Vorfahren Gustave Eiffels trugen den Namen Bonickhausen-Eiffel bzw. On 12 May a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals and on 12 June it presented its decision, which was that only Eiffel's proposal met their requirements. Sauvestre added the decorative arches to the base, a glass pavilion to the first level and the cupola at the top. The four legs, each at an angle of 54° to the ground, were initially constructed as cantilevers, relying on the anchoring bolts in the masonry foundation blocks. Gustave Eiffel, for his part, is more complete in his response, but his arguments seem equally astonishing. A temporary concession to Gustave Eiffel A convention was signed on January 8, 1887 between Gustave Eiffel and the other stakeholders’ representatives, Édouard Lockroy, Minister of Commerce, on behalf of the national government, and Eugène Poubelle, prefect for the Seine, on behalf of the City. He was already working independently on the construction of two railway stations, at Toulouse and Agen, and in 1866 he was given a contract to oversee the construction of 33 locomotives for the Egyptian government, a profitable but undemanding job in the course of which he visited Egypt, where he visited the Suez Canal which was being constructed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. [23] Initially Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, although he did sanction further study of the project, and the two engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre to add architectural embellishments. Dijon, (France). Gustave Eiffel ever worked as a private secretary for a railway engineer before he becomes famous. Eiffel had calculated that this would be satisfactory until they approached halfway to the first level: accordingly work was stopped for the purpose of erecting a wooden supporting scaffold. Champs; Ingénierie, chimie, industrie, architecture Institutions; Collège Sainte-Barbe, Diplôme École centrale Paris, promotion 1855. Gustave Eiffel was a French engineer who designed and oversaw construction of the Eiffel Tower. Alexandre was born on January 15 1832, in Dijon, 21, Cote d'Or. Eiffel zeigte Durchhaltevermögen, diplomatische Menschenkenntnis und vor allem großes Organisationstalent, immer die geeignetsten Fachleute für seine Projekte zu gewinnen und zusammenzuführen. Naissance, 15 décembre 1832. [5][6] 1879 begann er mit der Entwicklung eines ausgeklügelten Trägersystems für die Tragwerke des inneren Stützgerüsts der von dem Franzosen Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi entworfenen Freiheitsstatue in New York, deren Einweihung am 28. After a few months working as an unpaid assistant to his brother-in-law, who managed a foundry, Eiffel approached the railway engineer Charles Nepveu, who gave Eiffel his first paid job as his private secretary. Little happened until the beginning of 1886, but with the re-election of Jules Grévy as President and his appointment of Edouard Lockroy as Minister for Trade decisions began to be made. Archives Nationales, Dossier LH/892/60. Eiffel devised a structure consisting of a four legged pylon to support the copper sheeting which made up the body of the statue. Alexandre gustave eiffel 1. By June construction had reached the second level platform, and on Bastille Day this was used for a fireworks display, and Eiffel held a celebratory banquet for the press on the first level platform. The Tower is also important because of its role in establishing the aesthetic potential of structures whose appearance is largely dictated by practical considerations. The locks were on a large scale, most having a change of level of 11 m (36 ft). Dezember 1923 im Alter von 91 Jahren in Paris (Hauptstadt von Frankreich) gestorben. Die längsten Brücken und die … Despite being one of the most important engineers and aerodynamicists of his age, Gustave Eiffel’s reputation ultimately rests on two instantly recognisable landmarks: the Eiffel Tower and the Statue of Liberty. Some work had already been carried out by Eugène Viollet-Le-Duc, but he had died in 1879. Shortly before the trial Eiffel had announced his intention to resign from the Board of Directors of the Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel, and did so at a General Meeting held on 14 February, saying "I have absolutely decided to abstain from any participation in any manufacturing business from now on, and so that no one can be misled and to make it most evident that I intend to remain absolutely uninvolved with the management of the establishments which bear my name, I insist that my name should disappear from the name of the company. die seiner Mitarbeiter. This was greater than the longest arch span which had been built at the time. (Lithograph by Vincent Brooks, Day & Son) AGE, one of the chief architects behind the Eiffel Tower: 15 December 1832 – 27 December 1923. In 1886 Eiffel also designed the dome for the Astronomical Observatory in Nice. Eiffel went on to attend the Collège Sainte-Barbe in Paris, to prepare for the difficult entrance exams set by engineering colleges in France, and qualified for entry to two of the most prestigious schools – École polytechnique and École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures – and ultimately entered the latter. For a variety of economic and political reasons, this had been slow to make an impact in France,[40] and Eiffel had the good fortune to be working at a time of rapid industrial development in France. September 1884 voraus „für ein neues Verfahren, das es erlaubt, Metallpfeiler und -pylonen von einer Höhe zu bauen, die dreihundert Meter übersteigen kann“. In dieser Sparte bestand damals eine große Nachfrage nach Ingenieuren und zugleich eine hohe Personalfluktuation. They led, in 2010, to the decision to list Eiffel's Bordeaux bridge as a French Historical Monument. At the time of Gustave's birth his father, an ex-soldier, was working as an administrator for the French Army; but shortly after his birth his mother expanded a charcoal business she had inherited from her parents to include a coal-distribution business, and soon afterwards his father gave up his job to assist her. The Eiffel Tower takes its name from the engineer Gustave Eiffel, but was actually designed by his senior engineers Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nugier. Between 1892 and 1891 he compiled a complete set of meteorological readings, and later extended his record-taking to include measurements from 25 different locations across France. The bridge over the Douro came about as the result of a competition held by the Royal Portuguese Railroad Company. Die deutsche Schreibung des Namens Bonickhausen ist „Bönickhausen“ mit Umlautzeichen. Daraufhin übergab er seine Gesellschaft Eiffel & Cie. an seinen Mitarbeiter Maurice Koechlin und zog sich aus dem Geschäft zurück. In order to carry out this work, Eiffel and Henri Treca, the director of the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers,[14] conducted valuable research on the structural properties of cast iron, definitively establishing the modulus of elasticity applicable to compound castings. The main structural work was completed at the end of March, and on the 31st Eiffel celebrated this by leading a group of government officials, accompanied by representatives of the press, to the top of the tower. ), État-civil de la Côte-d’Or, Dijon, Registres d’état civil (Geburts- und Namensregister) 1832, p. 249, Eine Brücke Eiffels stürzte ein. [28] The task of drawing the components was complicated by the complex angles involved in the design and the degree of precision required: the positions of rivet holes were specified to within 0.1 mm (0.04 in) and angles worked out to one second of arc. Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) Eiffel (French Eiffel Constructions métalliques) is part of the Eiffage group and the descendant of the engineering company Société des Établissements Eiffel founded by Gustave Eiffel, designer of the Eiffel Tower. [34] The later American-built canal used new lock designs (see History of the Panama Canal). [15] His first important commission was for two viaducts for the railway line between Lyon and Bordeaux, and the company also began to undertake work in other countries, including the church of San Marcos in Arica, Chile, which was an all-metal prefabricated building, manufactured in France and shipped to South America in pieces to be assembled on site. Januar 1888 zu montieren waren. Due to his mother's business commitments, Gustave spent his childhood living with his grandmother, but nevertheless remained close to his mother, who was to remain an influential figure until her death in 1878. [12] However, shortly afterwards Nepveu's company went bankrupt, Nepveu found Eiffel a job designing a 22 m (72 ft) sheet iron bridge for the Saint Germaine railway. Edouard had 4 siblings: Albert EIFFEL … At the same time he was employed by Jean-Baptiste Kranz to assist him in the design of the exhibition hall for the Exposition Universelle which was to be held in 1867. After this brief pause erection of the metalwork continued, and the critical operation of linking the four legs was successfully completed by March 1888. Following complaints about noise from people living nearby, he moved his experiments to a new establishment at Auteuil in 1912. After his retirement from the Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel, Eiffel went on to do important work in meteorology and aerodynamics. 7 avr. Gustave EIFFEL, born 15 December 1832 - Dijon, 21000, Côte-d'Or, France, deceased 27 December 1923 - Paris, 75008, Paris, ... Edouard EIFFEL 1866-1933; Valentine EIFFEL 1870-1965 Married 23 January 1890, Église Saint-François de Sales - Paris, 75017, Paris, France, toCamille PICCIONI 1859-1932; Albert EIFFEL 1873-1941 Sources. Gustave Eiffel wurde geboren Burgund, Frankreich, in der Stadt von Dijon, Côte-d'Or, das erste Kind von Catherine-Mélanie (née Moneuse) und Alexandre Bönickhausen (Französisch Aussprache: [bɔnikozɑ]). Following the completion of the project on schedule Eiffel was appointed as the principal engineer of the Compagnie Belge. Seinem wichtigsten Projekt ging eine Patentanmeldung vom 18. Thus he attacks his answer by the aesthetic criterion, arguing that we can only judge on the piece because it is not yet built. „Bonickhausen dit Eiffel“ („genannt Eiffel“). After discussing the technical problems and emphasising the practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by saying that the tower would symbolise[24].mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, "not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France's gratitude.". Alexandre Gustave Eiffel wurde am 15. Ab 1843 besuchte er das Collège Sainte-Barbe in Paris, wo er sich 1850 niederließ[2] und zunächst an der dortigen École polytechnique studierte. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation during the exhibition and for the following twenty years. Like the Douro bridge, the project involved a lengthy viaduct crossing the river valley as well as the river itself, and Eiffel was given the job without any process of competitive tendering due to his success with the bridge over the Douro. Vanity Fair caricature by JB Guth (real name Jean-Baptiste Guth, 1883–1921). Work on the foundations was complete by 30 June and the erection of the iron work was started. Eiffel established that the lift produced by an airfoil was the result of a reduction of air pressure above the wing rather than an increase of pressure acting on the under surface. [26], "To bring our arguments home, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream. Notable structures built by the Eiffel Company and its predecessors Von 1872 bis 1874 war Eiffel in Südamerika tätig, wo er in Chile, Bolivien und Peru arbeitete. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel war ein französischer Ingenieur, in dessen Büro der nach ihm benannte „Eiffelturm“ in Paris zur Weltausstellung 1889 konzipiert und realisiert wurde. Jahrhunderts in Aremberg, Kreis Ahrweiler, und in Marmagen, Kreis Euskirchen, und stand dort als ludimagister (Schulmeister) und Sakristan in Kirchendiensten. Although no more than 250 men were employed on the site, a prodigious amount of exacting preparatory work was entailed: the drawing office produced 1,700 general drawings and 3,629 detail drawings of the 18,038 different parts needed. Der nach dem Erbauer Gustave Eiffel benannte und zum Errichtungszeitpunkt noch 312 Meter hohe Turm war von seiner Erbauung bis zur Fertigstellung des Chrysler Building 1930 in New York das höchste Bauwerk der Welt. Gustave Eiffel was born in Burgundy, France, in the city of Dijon, Côte-d'Or, the first child of Catherine-Mélanie (née Moneuse) and Alexandre Bönickhausen (French pronunciation: [bɔnikozɑ̃]). 2019 - Alexandre Gustave Bönickhausen. Die wesentlichen Ingenieuraufgaben beim Garrabit-Viadukt (Entwurf und Statik) wurden vo… Eiffel sent the engineers to the head of his company’s architectural department, Stephen Sauvestre. People Projects Discussions Surnames 1866 machte er sich mit einem eigenen Betrieb in Levallois-Perret bei Paris selbständig. [43], Alexandre Gustave Bonickhausen dit Eiffel, État-civil de la Côte-d'Or, Dijon, Registres d'état civil 1832, p. 249, Charles Braibant, Histoire de la Tour Eiffel, Paris 1964, p. 35, "The Death of a Great Pioneer: Gustav Eiffel Passes Away", "Future of Poland's one and only "Eiffel" Bridge unclear", "Page d'accueil | Association des descendants de Gustave Eiffel", Retour à la liste des extraits des bulletins de l'ADGE, Official website of the Association of the Descendants of Gustave Eiffel (in English), Gustave Eiffel: The Man Behind the Masterpiece, Einsturz der Birsbrücke bei Münchenstein (Basel), Statue of Liberty play (American football), Conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gustave_Eiffel&oldid=991058658, Pages using infobox person with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Synagogue in Rue de Pasarelles, Paris (1867), Aérodynamique EIFFEL (wind tunnel), Paris (Auteuil), France (1911), Clock Tower, Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic, The Railway Bridge over the Coura river in. Décès 27 décembre 1923 (à 91 ans). Eiffel war damals noch ein jüngerer Mann – den nach ihm benannten Turm in Paris gab es noch nicht. The French Panama Canal Company, headed by Ferdinand de Lesseps, had been attempting to build a sea-level canal, but came to the realization that this was impractical. Er war für die Pariser Weltausstellung 1889 vorgesehen und wurde unter Eiffels Leitung erbaut. April 1711 im Haus des Herzogs von Gramont in der rue Neuve Saint-Augustin in der Pfarrei St-Roch, Paris, Marie Lideriz heiratete und als Angestellter der Ferme générale am 7. Created by Gustave Eiffel, the construction of the Eiffel Tower lasted just over two years and 250 workers worked there. November 2020 um 13:37 Uhr bearbeitet. Using this Eiffel definitely established that the air resistance of a body was very closely related to the square of the airspeed. Jahrhunderts leistete Eiffel Pionierarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Windkanäle mit Experimenten zur Untersuchung des Luftwiderstandes von verschiedenen geometrischen Formen und legte damit einen Grundstein für den modernen Flugzeugbau.

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